UNIX COMMANDS- AIX Command Crib Sheet

oslevel Returns operating system level

whence (program) Returns full path of program
whereis (program) Returms full path of program

what (program) Displays identifying info from the executable
like version number, when compiled.

lslpp -L all list all installed software
lslpp -L (program set name) Check if software installed
lslpp -f Lists filesets vs packages
lslpp -ha Lists installation history of filesets

instfix -ik (fix number eg IX66617) Checks id fix is installed
instfix -ik 4330-02_AIX_ML

compress -c file.txt > file.Z Create a compressed file.

uuencode (infile) (extract-file-name) > (output file)
Converts a binary file to an ASCII file for transfer by modem or email

uudecode (encoded file)
Extracts a binary file from encoded file and calls it the extract-file-name

examples :-

uuencode maymap maymap > maymap.enc
uuencode maymap.enc

od -c /tmp Displays contents of the /tmp directory file
ls -i Lists files with their inode numbers
echo * Lists files, can be used if ls is corrupt/missing

alog -o -t boot View the boot log

chtz (timezone eg GMT0BST) Changes the timezone in /etc/environment file
chlang (language eg En_GB) Changes the language in /etc/environment file

ar -v -t (archive file) List contents of an archive
ar -v -x (archive file) Extracts the archive
ar -v -t /usr/lib/libC-r.a Lists contents of the libC_r.a library

find /source -print | cpio -pdm /target
Copying directories using cpio, creates /target/source directory.

dump -nTv (binary executable) Displays the contents of an executable file

dump -c Displays string information
dump -o Displays object file headers
dump -l Displays line numbers
dump -s Displays the text section

snap -ao /dev/rmt0 Create a snapshot onto tape
snap -ad (directory) Create a snapshot into a named directory other
than the default (/tmp/ibmsupt)

/usr/dt/bin/dtconfig -d Disables desktop logins
/usr/dt/bin/dtconfig -e Enables desktop logins
/var/dt/Xpid PID of the dtlogin process

——————————————————————————–
TERMINALS
——————————————————————————–

tty Displays what the tty/pty number of the terminal is.

termdef reports the termtype setup in smit for the tty port
that termdef is run on.

chdev -l (device eg tty1) -a term=vt100 Sets tty to a vt100 terminal type

penable tty0 adds getty line into /etc/inittab for tty0 and starts getty
pdisable tty0 disables the getty line and disables getty

penable / pdisable -a option is for all

stty erase ^? Set backspace key for vt100 terminals
stty erase ^H Set backspace key for wyse50 terminals

lscons Displays the console device
chcons -a login=enable (device eg /dev/tty1) Changes the console device

Create ttys on ports 0 to 7 on adapter sa2 :-

for i in 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
do
mkdev -c tty1 -t tty -s rs232 -p sa2 -w$i -a login=enable -a term=vt100
done

portmir -t /dev/tty0 Mirror current terminal onto /dev/tty0
portmir -o Turns off port mirroring

——————————————————————————–
NETWORK
——————————————————————————–

host (ip or hostname) Resolves a hostname / ip address

hostname Displays hostname
hostname (hostname) Sets the hostname until next reboot

chdev -l (device name) -a hostname=(hostname) Changes hostname permanently
chdev -l inet0 -a hostname=thomas

ifconfig (device name) Displays network card settings
ifconfig (device name) up Turns on network card
ifconfig (device name) down Turns off network card
ifconfig (device name) detach Removes the network card from the
network interface list
ifconfig en0 inet 194.35.52.1 netmask 255.255.255.0 up

ifconfig lo0 alias 195.60.60.1 Create alias ip address for loopback

route (add/delete) (-net/-host) (destination) (gateway)
Adds or deletes routes to other networks or hosts, does not update
the ODM database and will be lost at reboot.
route add -net 194.60.89.0 194.60.90.4

lsattr -EHl inet0 Displays routes set in ODM and hostname
odmget -q “name=inet0” CuAt Displays routes set in ODM and hostname

refresh -s inetd Refresh inetd after changes to inetd.conf
kill -1 (inetd PID) Refresh inetd after changes to inted.conf

netstat -i Displays interface statistics
entstat -d (ethernet adapter eg en0) Displays ethernet statistics

arp -a Displays ip to mac address table from arp cache

no -a Displays network options use -o to set individual options or
-d to set individual options to default.
no -o option=value (this value is reset at reboot)
no -o “ipforwarding=1”

traceroute (name or ipaddress) Displays all the hops from source to
destination supplied.

ping -R (name or ipaddress) Same as traceroute except repeats.

——————————————————————————–
N.F.S.
——————————————————————————–

exportfs Lists all exported filesystems

exportfs -a Exports all fs’s in /etc/exports file

exportfs -u (filesystem) Un-exports a filesystem

mknfs Configures and starts NFS services

rmnfs Stops and un-configures NFS services

mknfsexp -d /directory Creates an NFS export directory

mknfsmnt Creates an NFS mount directory

mount hostname:/filesystem /mount-point Mount an NFS filesystem

nfso -a Display NFS Options
nfso -o option=value Set an NFS Option
nfso -o nfs_use_reserved_port=1

——————————————————————————–
BACKUPS
——————————————————————————–

MKSYSB
——

mkszfile -f Creates /image.data file (4.x onwards)
mkszfile -X Creates /fs.size file (3.x)

mksysb (device eg /dev/rmt0)

CPIO ARCHIVE
————

find (filesystem) -print | cpio -ocv > (filename or device)

eg find ./usr/ -print | cpio -ocv > /dev/rmt0

CPIO RESTORE
————

cpio -ict < (filename or device) | more Lists archive
cpio -icdv < (filename or device)
cpio -icdv < (filename or device) ("files or directories to restore")

eg cpio -icdv < /dev/rmt0 "tcpip/*" Restore directory and contents
cpio -icdv new.filename
Strips out ^M characters from ascii files that have been transferred as binary.
To enter crontrol characters type ctrl v then ctrl ? where ? is whatever
ctrl character you need.

——————————————————————————–
DEVICES
——————————————————————————–

lscfg lists all installed devices
lscfg -v lists all installed devices in detail
lscfg -vl (device name) lists device details

bootinfo -b reports last device the system booted from
bootinfo -k reports keyswitch position
1=secure, 2=service, 3=normal

bootinfo -r reports amount of memory (/ by 1024)
bootinfo -s (disk device) reports size of disk drive
bootinfo -T reports type of machine ie rspc

lsattr -El sys0 -a realmem reports amount of useable memory

mknod (device) c (major no) (minor no) Creates a /dev/ device file.
mknod /dev/null1 c 2 3

lsdev -C lists all customised devices ie installed
lsdev -P lists all pre-defined devices ie supported
lsdev -(C or P) -c (class) -t (type) -s (subtype)

chdev -l (device) -a (attribute)=(new value) Change a device attribute
chdev -l sys0 -a maxuproc=80

lsattr -EH -l (device) -D Lists the defaults in the pre-defined db
lsattr -EH -l sys0 -a modelname

rmdev -l (device) Change device state from available to defined
rmdev -l (device) -d Delete the device
rmdev -l (device) -SR S stops device, R unconfigures child devices

lsresource -l (device) Displays bus resource attributes of a device.

Power Management (PCI machines)
——————————-

pmctrl -a Displays the Power Management state

rmdev -l pmc0 Unconfigure Power Management
mkdev -l pmc0 Configure Power Management

——————————————————————————–
TAPE DRIVES
——————————————————————————–

rmt0.x where x = A + B + C

A = density 0 = high 4 = low
B = retension 0 = no 2 = yes
C = rewind 0 = no 1 = yes

tctl -f (tape device) fsf (No) Skips forward (No) tape markers
tctl -f (tape device) bsf (No) Skips back (No) tape markers
tctl -f (tape device) rewind Rewind the tape
tctl -f (tape device) offline Eject the tape
tctl -f (tape device) status Show status of tape drive

chdev -l rmt0 -a block_size=512 changes block size to 512 bytes
(4mm = 1024, 8mm = variable but
1024 recommended)

bootinfo -e answer of 1 = machine can boot from a tape drive
answer of 0 = machine CANNOT boot from tape drive

diag -c -d (tape device) Hardware reset a tape drive.

tapechk (No of files) Checks Number of files on tape.

(filename) Output crontab entrys to a file
crontab (filename) Enter a crontab from a file
crontab -r Removes all crontab entrys
crontab -v Displays crontab submission time.

/var/adm/cron/cron.allow File containing users allowed crontab use.
/var/adm/cron/cron.deny File containing users denied crontab use.
/var/adm/cron/crontab Directory containing users crontab entries.

at (now + 2 minutes, 13:05, etc) {return} Schedule a job using at
Command or schell script {return}
{CTRL D}

at -l
atq Lists out jobs scheduled to run via at command

at -r (at job No)
atrm (at job No) Removes an at job scheduled to run.

/var/adm/cron/at.allow File containing users allowed at use.
/var/adm/cron/at.deny File containing users denied at use.
/var/adm/cron/atjobs Directory containing users at entries.

——————————————————————————–
SECURITY
——————————————————————————–

groups Lists out the groups that the user is a member of
setgroups Shows user and process groups

chmod abcd (filename) Changes files/directory permissions

Where a is (4 SUID) + (2 SGID) + (1 SVTX)
b is (4 read) + (2 write) + (1 execute) permissions for owner
c is (4 read) + (2 write) + (1 execute) permissions for group
d is (4 read) + (2 write) + (1 execute) permissions for others

-rwxrwxrwx -rwxrwxrwx -rwxrwxrwx
||| ||| |||
– – –
| | |
Owner Group Others

-rwSrwxrwx = SUID -rwxrwSrwx = SGID drwxrwxrwt = SVTX

chown (new owner) (filename) Changes file/directory owners
chgrp (new group) (filename) Changes file/directory groups

chown (new owner).(new group) (filename) Do both !!!

umask Displays umask settings
umask abc Changes users umask settings

where ( 7 – a = new file read permissions)
( 7 – b = new file write permissions)
( 7 – c = new file execute permissions)

eg umask 022 = new file permissions of 755 = read write and execute for owner
read —– and execute for group
read —– and execute for other

mrgpwd > file.txt Creates a standard password file in file.txt

passwd Change current user password

pwdadm (username) Change a users password

pwdck -t ALL Verifies the correctness of local authentication

lsgroup ALL Lists all groups on the system
mkgroup (new group) Creates a group
chgroup (attribute) (group) Change a group attribute
rmgroup (group) Removes a group

——————————————————————————–
USERS
——————————————————————————–

passwd -f Change current users gecos (user description)
passwd -s Change current users shell

chfn (username) Changes users gecos
chsh (username) (shell) Changes users shell

env Displays values of environment variables
printenv

id Displays current user’s uid and gid details
id (user) Displays user uid and gid details

whoami Displays current user details
who am i (or who -m)

who Displays details of all users currently logged in.
w
who -b Displays system reboot time

uptime Displays number of users logged in, time since last
reboot, and the machine load averages.

lslicense Displays number of current user licensese
chlicense -u (number) Changes the number of user licenses

lsuser ALL Lists all users details
lsuser (username) Lists details for user
lsuser -a(attribute) (username or ALL) Lists user attributes
lsuser -a home ALL

mkuser -a(attributes) (newuser) Add a new user

chuser (attributes) (user) Change a user
chuser login=false (user) Lock a user account

rmuser -p (user) Removes a user and all entries in security files

usrck -t ALL Checks all the user entires are okay.

fuser -u (logical volume) Displays processes using the files in that LV

lsattr -D -l sys0 -a maxuproc Displays max number of processes per user
chdev -l sys0 -a maxuproc=(number) Changes max number of processes per user

——————————————————————————–
REMOTE USERS
——————————————————————————–

ruser -a -f (user) Adds entry into /etc/ftpusers file
ruser -a -p (host) Adds entry into /etc/host.lpd file
ruser -a -r (host) Adds entry into /etc/hosts.equiv file

ruser -d -f (user) Deletes entry in /etc/ftpusers file
ruser -d -p (host) Deletes entry in /etc/host.lpd file
ruser -d -r (host) Deletes entry in /etc/hosts.equiv file

ruser -s -F Shows all entries in /etc/ftpusers file
ruser -s -P Shows all entries in /etc/host.lpd file
ruser -s -R Shows all entries in /etc/hosts.equiv file

ruser -X -F Deletes all entries in /etc/ftpusers file
ruser -X -P Deletes all entries in /etc/host.lpd file
ruser -X -R Deletes all entries in /etc/hosts.equiv file

——————————————————————————–
INITTAB
——————————————————————————–

telinit S Switches to single user mode.
telinit 2 Switches to multi user mode.
telinit q Re-examines /etc/inittab

lsitab -a Lists all entries in inittab
lsitab (ident eg tty1) Lists the tty1 entry in inittab

mkitab (“details”) Creates a new inittab entry
chitab (“details”) Ammends an existing inittab entry

rmitab (ident eg tty1) Removes an inittab entry.

chitab “tty1:2:respawn:/usr/bin/getty /dev/tty1”

——————————————————————————–
ODM
——————————————————————————–

odmget -q “name=lp1” CuDv |more Gets lp1 info from pre-defined database.

odmget -q “name-lp1” CuAt |more Gets lp1 info from customised database.

odmdelete -o CuAt -q “name=lp1” Deletes lp1 info from customised db.

odmget -q “name=lp1” CuAt > lp1.CuAt Export ODM info to text file.
odmadd < lp1.CuAt Import ODM info from text file.

——————————————————————————–
ERROR LOGGING
——————————————————————————–

/usr/lib/errdemon -l Displays errorlog attributes.
/usr/lib/errdemon Starts error logging.
/usr/lib/errstop Stops error logging.

errpt Displays summary errorlog report.
errpt -a Displays detailed errorlog report.
errpt -j (identifier) Displays singe errorlog report.

Note : errorlog classes are H=Hardware S=Software O=Information V=Undetermined

errclear (days) Deletes all error classes in the errorlog.
errclear -d (class) (days) Deletes all error class entries in errlog.

Note : The errclear command will delete all entries older than the numbers of
days specified in the days paramenter. To delete ALL entries used 0.

errlogger "message up to 230 chrs"
Enters an operator notifaction message into the errorlog.

——————————————————————————–
PERFORMANCE MONITORING
——————————————————————————–

vmstat (drive) (interval) (count) Reports virtual memory statistics.
vmstat hdisk0 5 20

vmstat -s Diplays number of paging events since system start.
vmstat -f Diplays number of forks since system start.
vmstat -i Diplays number of interupts by device since system start.

iostat (drive) (interval) (count) Reports i/o and cpu statistics.
iostat hdisk0 5 20

iostat -d (drive) (interval) (count) Limits report to drive statistics.
iostat -t (interval) (count) Limits report to tty statistics.

sar -u -P ALL 10 10 Displays %usr %sys %wio %idle for all processors

——————————————————————————–
DOS DISKETTES
——————————————————————————–

dosdir Reads directory listing of a diskette
dosdir (directory) Reads directory listing of a named directory

dosread -D/dev/fd0 C41.TXT c41.txt Gets C41.TXT from diskette drive fd0

dosread -D/dev/fd0 DIRECTORY/C41.TXT c41.txt
(-D option can be dropped if using fd0)

doswrite -D/dev/fd0 (unixfile) (dosfile) Writes a file to diskette

dosdel (dosfile) Deletes a dos file on diskette

dosformat Formats the diskette

——————————————————————————–
SENDMAIL
——————————————————————————–

sendmail -bi Creates new aliase db from /etc/aliase file.
newaliases

sendmail -bp Displays the contents of the mail queue
mailq

sendmail -q Processe the sendmail queue NOW

sendmail -bt -d0.4 < /dev/null
Prints out sendmail version, compile defines and system information

refresh -s sendmail Restart sendmail
kill -l (sendmail PID)

——————————————————————————–
SP / PSSP
——————————————————————————–

dsh (command) Runs the command on all the nodes

Efence Diplays which node are currently fenced
Efence (node number) Fences the node

Eunfence (node number) Unfences the node

Estart Starts the switch

spmon -q Starts SP monitor in gui
spmon -d -G Diag info, lists LED and switch info for all nodes
spmon -L frame1/node3 Displays LED for node 3 in frame 1

spmon -p off frame1/node3 Powers off the node
spmon -p on frame1/node3 Powers on the node

spled Diplays all the nodes LED's in a updating gui

s1term -w (frame number) (node number) Opens serial terminal (read and write)
s1term (frame number) (node number) Opens serial terminal (read only)

Example :-

s1term 1 1 Opens a serial terminal to console port on frame 1 node 1
which is read only. When rebooting a node use read only.

splstdata -e Lists site environment database information
-d Displays df command from each node
-n Lists node configuration
-h Diplays lscfg command from each node
-s Lists switch node information
-b Lists boot/installation information
-a Lists LAN database information
-i Displays netstat -in command from each node

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: